2022   03   en   p.16-26 Hüseyin Okan Durmuş1,2, Mirhasan Yu Seyidov1,
Demonstrating the importance of emissivity measurement in determining the doses of light sources on tissue mimicking materials such as laser, IPL and LED


Nowadays, a wide variety of low-power light sources such as IPL, LED and laser are frequently used in therapy applications. In this study, irradiance values were calculated for different emissivity values by using the temperature measurement results made in the agar phantom using low-power light sources such as LED, IPL and laser. Based on the irradiance data, energy densities (J/cm2) as per the different emissivity coefficient and time durations are calculated and the results were evaluated in terms of dose quantities given in the literature. We also present in detail both acoustic and optical characterization of the agar phantom. In conclusion, we clearly show the importance of emissivity measurement in this study. Our findings explicitly suggest that emissivity measurement must be determined precisely to determine optical power density and/or energy density values and hence doses can be applied on the base of this values.

Keywords: Temperature Measurement, Emissivty, Irradiance, Energy Density, Dose, Low-Power Light Sources, Laser, IPL, LED.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1557976/v1

Received: 01.07.2022


1. Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, 41400, Kocaeli, Turkey
2. Medical Metrology Laboratory, TUBITAK National Metrology Institute (TUBITAK UME), 41470, Kocaeli, Turkey
E-mail: hokandurmus@gtu.edu.tr, smirhasan@gtu.edu.tr

[1]   B. Zhang, X. Huang, S. Huo et al. Effect of photobiomodulation therapy on mini-implant stability: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lasers Med Sci 36, 2021. 1557–1566.
[2]   M.A. Vetrici, S. Mokmeli, A.R. Bohm, M. Monici, S.A. Sigman. 2021. Evaluation of Adjunctive Photobiomodulation (PBMT) for COVID-19 Pneumonia via Clinical Status and Pulmonary Severity Indices in a Preliminary Trial. Journal of inflammation research, 14, 965–979.
[3]   P.G. Vassão, J. Parisi, T.F.C. Penha et al. Association of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and exercises programs in pain and functional capacity of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA): a systematic review of randomized trials. Lasers Med Sci 36, 2021.1341–1353.
[4]   Vinh Van Tran, Minhe Chae, Ju-Young Moon, Young-Chul Lee. Light emitting diodes technology-based photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for dermatology and aesthetics: Recent applications, challenges, and perspectives, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 135, 2021, 106698.
[5]   H. Shojaei, Y. Sokhangoei, M.R. Soroush. 2008. Low level laser therapy in the treatment of pressure ulcers in spinal cord handicapped veterans living in Tehran. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences, 33(1), 44-48.
[6]   T. Bavaresco, A.D.F. Lucena. 2021. Low-laser light therapy in venous ulcer healing: a randomized clinical trial. Revista brasileira de enfermagem, 75.
[7]   R.K. Mathur, K. Sahu, S. Saraf, P. Patheja, F. Khan, P.K. Gupta. 2017. Low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to conventional therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Lasers in medical science, 32 (2), 275-282.
[8]   J. Verbelen. 2007. Use of polarised light as a method of pressure ulcer prevention in an adult intensive care unit. Journal of wound care, 16,4, 145-150.
[9]   H.A. Elessawy, W.H. Borhan, N.A. Ghozlan, S.H. Nagib. 2021. Effect of light-emitting diode irradiation on chronic nonhealed wound after below-knee amputation. The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, 20, 3, 251-256.
[10]  R.M. Ramos, M. Burland, J.B. Silva, L.M. Burman, M.S. Gelain, L. M.Debom, J. Valmier. 2019. Photobiomodulation improved the first stages of wound healing process after abdominoplasty: an experimental, double-blinded, non-randomized clinical trial. Aesthetic plastic surgery, 43 (1), 147-154.
[11]  I. Frangež, T. Nizič-Kos, H. B. Frangež. 2018. Phototherapy with LED shows promising results in healing chronic wounds in diabetes mellitus patients: a prospective randomized double-blind study. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 36(7), 377-382.
[12]  de Barros Araújo Júnior, R. Gonzaga, I.C.A. Fernandes, G.A. Lima, A.C.G. Cortelazzi, P.S.T. de Oliveira, R.A. Nicolau, R.A. 2018. Low-intensity LED therapy (λ 640±20 nm) on saphenectomy healing in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft: a randomized, double-blind study. Lasers in Medical Science, 33(1), 103-109.
[13]  A.C.G. Lima, G.A. Fernandes, de Barros Araújo, R. Gonzaga, I.C. de Oliveira, R.A. Nicolau, R.A. 2017. Photobiomodulation (laser and LED) on sternotomy healing in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery with internal mammary artery grafts: A randomized, double-blind study with follow-up. Photomedicine and laser surgery, 35(1), 24-31.
[14]  M.J. Al Abdullah, Y.G. Mahdi. 2022. Intense pulsed light versus benzoyl peroxide. Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology= Journal de la Therapeutique des Populations et de la Pharmacologie Clinique, 28(2), e54-e61.
[15]  W. Oentari, A.R. Sutrisno, N.K. Jusuf, K. Nasution. 2022. Intense pulsed light (IPL) as adjuvant therapy for acne vulgaris: A case series. Journal of General-Procedural Dermatology and Venereology Indonesia, 175-181.
[16]  A. Deshpande. 2022. Efficacy & safety of intense pulsed light therapy for unwanted facial hair: a retrospective analysis in skin of color. Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy, 1-6.
[17]  M. Abrouk, J. Dong, J. S. Waibel. 2022. Medical and aesthetic improvement of photodamaged skin by the combination of intense pulsed light and photodynamic therapy with 10% aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride gel. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, 54(1), 62-65.
[18]  Giannaccare, Giuseppe MD, PhD, FEBOphth*; Pellegrini, Marco MD, FEBOphth†,‡,§; Carnovale Scalzo, Giovanna MD*; Borselli, Massimiliano MD*; Ceravolo, Domenico OD*; Scorcia, Vincenzo MD* Low-Level Light Therapy Versus Intense Pulsed Light for the Treatment of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction, Cornea: February 3, 2022 - Volume - Issue - doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000002997
[19]  B. Karaböce, E. Çetin, H.O. Durmuş, M. Özdingiş, H. Öztürk, K. Mahmat, M.A. Güler. 2018. Investigation of Different TMMs in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Applications. In 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA) (s. pp. 1-5). IEEE.
[20]  H.O. Durmuş, S. Kocaata, G. Naz, Çelik, Y.E. Çetin, E. Karaböce, B. Seyidov, M.Y. 2020, June. Investigation of Basic Optical Properties of Tissue Phantoms Under 635 nm Low-Level Laser Irradiation. In 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
[21]  H.O. Durmuş, E.Ç. Arı, B. Karaböce, M.Y. Seyidov. 2020. Measurements of temperature and optical power caused by an IPL therapy device on an artificial tissue. Results in Optics, 1, 100001.
[22]  H.O. Durmuş, E. Çetin, E. Demirkıran, B. Karaböce, M.H.Y. Seyidov. 2019, November. Investigation of the temperature effect of the LED therapy device on tissue-mimicking material. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2178, № 1, p. 030002). AIP Publishing LLC.
[23]  S. Hou. 2018. Photo-thermally enhanced temperature gradient gel electrophoresis for DNA separation (Doctoral dissertation, Northeastern University).
[24]  M. Wellons. 2007. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law. Physics Department, The College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio, 44691.
[25]  https://heliotherapyreviews.com/red-light/red-light-therapy-dosingguide/
[26]  M.Y. Nadeem, W. Ahmed. 2000). Optical properties of ZnS thin films. Turkish Journal of Physics, 24(5), 651-659.
[27]  D.T. Harvey. 2003. Analytical Chemistry for Technicians (3rd Edittion b.). John Kenkel.
[28]  S. Chang, A.K. Bowden. 2019. Review of methods and applications of attenuation coefficient measurements with optical coherence tomography. Journal of biomedical optics, 24(9), 090901.
[29]  J.O. Torrent, V. Barrón. 2008. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Methods of Soil Analysis Part 5. Mineralogical Methods, 5, 367-385.
[30]  B.C. Wilson. 1995. Measurement of tissue optical properties: methods and theories. In Optical-thermal response of laser-irradiated tissue. Springer, Boston, MA.
[31]  E.J. Jeong, H.W. Song, Lee, Y.J. Park, S.J. Yim, M. J. Lee, S.S. Kim, B. K. 2017. Fabrication and characterization of PVCP human breast tissue-mimicking phantom for photoacoustic imaging. BioChip Journal, 11(1), 67-75.
[32]  T.D. Mast. 2000. Empirical relationships between acoustic parameters in human soft tissues. Acoustics Research Letters Online, 1(2), 37-42.
[33]  L. Ntombela, B. Adeleye N. Chetty. 2020. Low-cost fabrication of optical tissue phantoms for use in biomedical imaging. Heliyon, 6(3), e03602.
[34]  M. Tepper, A. Shoval, I. Gannot. 2015. The effect of geometry on tumor thermal profile and its use in tumor functional state estimation. Journal of biophotonics, 8(3), 258-264.
[35]  https://energy-laser.com/guide-lines-for-treatment-with-laser-therapy/